Dec 8 2020 - Posted by Yvonne

The story of our UK democracy in 7 short chapters

The story of our UK democracy that every citizen should know in seven simple chapters

Illustrated by Young Co-Creator Olivia Winter aged 17.  To commission Liv email oliviawinter14@gmail.com
The Democracy Box© and The Story of our UK democracy that all citizens should know in seven simple chapters© and all associated content is copyright Yvonne Murphy/Omidaze Productions 2020
Scroll down for Welsh Language version

Ten Ways to have your say 

Democracy is about having your say and getting involved all year round.

Whether that’s through

exercising your freedom of speech

volunteering

starting or signing a petition

protesting

campaigning

joining a youth parliament

lobbying

contacting your elected representative

finding ways large and small to take part in Civic and Civil Society.

Here are ten ways in no particular order for each and every Hero to make sure their voice is heard & they can help shape and change their local area, region, nation, country for the better for themselves, their families, friends, neighbours, communities and for future generations.

  1. Have conversations with family & friends & share the Story of Our UK Democracy that every citizen should know. Explain all of the above to other hero’s. Critical thought, Debate, Collaboration, Reaching Consensus (agreement) are all key to a good working democracy.

  2. Volunteer & get involved in your local community Democracy starts outside your front door and in your local community all year round. Get to know your neighbours. Find out about and get involved involved in a voluntary body or society which aims to represent the needs of your local community and things which you care about. If one doesn’t already exist, start one! What do you want to change or get fixed or what’s already working well that you want to support?  Volunteer to help with a local community garden, or school (like helping listening to kids read or becoming a school governor or helping with the PTA) or find out about your local health board, parish, community and/or Town Council. Find out about Citizen’s Assemblies, Participatory Budgeting & local initiatives that will help you to raise your voice and be heard about what matters to your and your family and friends.

  3. Find out who your Councillors, Members of Devolved Parliament (if you live in Scotland, Wales or NI) and your MP is. Get in touch with them about what you care about locally, nationally and internationally. Contact your elected representatives by letter, email, and phone or in person. (They should all hold “surgeries” which just means a day when they hold face to face meetings with the people they represent. Some are drop ins and some are by appointment. Find them here at Write To Them & They Work for You

  4. Protest, Campaign & Organise. Join with others to amplify your voices and if you live in Wales use the Future Generations Act in Wales as a framework of best practice. Freedom to assemble (get together with others in public) is your right. Know your rights. get a copy of The Young Citizen’s Passport – a guide to those parts of the law most relevant to the everyday life of young people in England and Wales

  5. Contact the media. From letters pages in your local & national papers, to contacting journalists in the press and recorded media (TV) to social media or simply writing a blog it is your democratic right to “hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers.” Remember at all times the simple rules of our Freedom of Speech – that is comes with duties & responsibilities to protect the freedom and rights of others as well as ourselves & to not incite violence or hatred.

  6. Start a petition and get it debated by a devolved (Welsh parliament) or UK Parliament

  7. Contribute towards a committee’s research. They have to listen to you! Watch out for public consultations too and make sure you have your say about anything which matters to you.

  8. Join a School Council in primary &/or secondary school and/or a Youth Parliament from age 11-18 & when you are 18 or over stand for public office. Yes you!!! Become a Councillor or even stand to be elected as a Member of a devolved parliament or the UK parliament

  9. Register to Vote

  10. Vote Check out The Electoral Commission for trusted & unbiased public information about your vote & all elections & also Where do I vote? Who can I vote for?

 

The story of our UK democracy that every citizen should know in 7 very short chapters.

This ‘story’ contains the basics which we think every citizen needs to know. Democracy needs ALL the people in order for it to work. YOU are our UK democracy all year round and not just on election days. So get reading and get involved in YOUR democracy and have YOUR say every day and not just on election day.

Watch this video with young people talking about why sharing this story is so important

The information is in a story format because research shows that using story is the best way to engage and share information.

All The Democracy Box young co-creators use these seven chapters and creatively retell this story using social media, video, music, rap, podcasts etc

You can find examples of how they have retold this story to date by clicking any of these links

We need all citizens to

  1. Understand the basics of our existing UK democracy and that democracy is more than the ballot box and is all year round and begins with them
  2. Have confidence and trust that they are involved and their voices are heard
  3. Understand that democracy is not fixed or set in stone and is shaped by the people for the people
  4. Be given the confidence and permission to question and challenge our existing democracy. Because that is the very essence of a working democracy

Scroll to the bottom for a historical timeline and a glossary with meanings of many words used in this story

Foreword

Written by too many citizens to name

Watch this video – ‘What does democracy mean to you?’

Who holds the power? What power do I have? Why vote at all? Why get involved? Why does it matter? What’s democracy got to do with me? Who cares? How will it help? What will it do? Who do I trust? What is a vote anyway? Why wasn’t I taught all this in school? Who represents me and why, how and where? What is the difference between parliament and government?

Well sure you could just stand there shouting on the side lines or you could actually get involved and be part of the story. Because this story is your story. It is our story. Written by those who went before us and by all of us now and all those yet to come. Democracy is the people. Stand up and be counted.

Stand Up by young co-creator Saskia Pay 

 

Chapter 1 Introducing the hero of our story 

 

Watch the Discover Democracy film trailer on YouTube by young co-creators Thandi and Katherine

 

The hero of our story is you. You are at the heart of this story. You the reader. The viewer. The listener. You the citizen. You the Voter! Without you our collective story of democracy doesn’t really properly exist. Because the people rule and that means you rule!

 

You vote for people to represent you. However democracy is about more than simply voting and elections. It is about having your say every day and not just on election days.

 

Democracy is about having your say and getting involved all year round. Whether that’s through exercising your freedom of speech, volunteering, starting or signing a petition, protesting, campaigning, joining a youth parliament, lobbying, contacting your elected representative or finding ways large and small to take part in civic and civil Society.

 

Democracy is collaboration and negotiation. It is being able to think critically, debate and reach a consensus.

 

Democracy is a society which is considered as a community of citizens linked by common interests and collective activity.

 

Democracy affects your life every single day. From how and when your rubbish is collected and your streets are repaired to how your school and hospital is run to how you collaborate with others in your community for the benefit of your community.

 

Democracy isn’t just about voting.

 

Democracy needs you every single day of the year not simply on election days.

 

Democracy is you understanding how things operate so you can have your say all year round and not just on election days.

 

Democracy is about the responsible use of power by and for the people… Those who currently feel powerless & excluded should be able to learn how to have an effective say about issues that concern them, and do something about them. Society will be better as a result.Titus Alexander – Practical Politics

 

Listen to episode 1 of The Democracy Box podcast

 

Don’t be powerless & excluded.  Be the hero of the story by reading the story & sharing this story. Read all seven chapters & find out all you need to know to begin your hero’s journey.

 

Find out who can help you. You’re not on your own.

You have representatives who you elect to represent you in councils and parliaments/legislatures (that’s where the laws are made) across the UK. You need to find out who they are and make sure they are representing you properly all the time.

 

You elect the people who you want to represent you in your council and your parliament to discuss things on your behalf. You elect representatives to make the laws on your behalf and to look carefully at everything that happens and at what is decided by governments.

 

And you elect the people who get to form those governments.

 

All those elected representatives are paid by you and work for you and they have to listen to you all year round not just at election time.

 

Voting is your right. Your privilege.

 

Taking part is our democracy is your right too. Your privilege. You are part of a community. You are not alone.

 

Your challenge, if you choose to accept it, is to read this story, share this story & own and exercise that right, that privilege & enable others in your community to also.

You must collect seven key facts and find 10 ways to get involved in our UK democracy along the way.

You are a democracy hero. Are you ready?

 

Watch raps 1-4 from The Democracy Box Rap series by Saskia Pay on BBC Bitesize

 

 

Key fact: Democracy is about you. The basic feature of democracy is the capacity of all voters to participate freely and fully in the life of their society

 

 

Chapter 2 The four kinds of elected representatives our hero can call on for help

 

Democratic rights and freedoms without the skills and knowledge to use them are like owning a car without being able to drive Titus Alexander

 

Click here to watch rapper and young co-creator BlankFace explain the different levels of government in his own unique way

Every hero has more than one elected representative.

The first part of your quest is to find yours.

Everyone in the UK is represented by an MP and several councillors and some also elect a mayor.

 

If you live in Wales, Scotland & Northern Ireland you elect members of that devolved parliament/legislature too.

 

Step one on your hero’s journey is to find your elected representatives at Write To Them and They Work for You

 

Councillors are elected by Ward/District to represent you at local government level.

You will have several councillors who represent you at city, county, district or borough council level which is often called your Local Authority.

You may also have councillors who represent you at town, community and parish councils too. Find them all. Who are yours?

 

Mayors  Most local authorities opt for the ‘leader and cabinet’ model where the council leader is selected from the councillors, but in some areas a ‘mayor and cabinet’ model has been adopted, where a directly elected mayor is established to replace the council leader. Many authorities with or without elected mayors have a ceremonial mayor who holds no executive power and the two roles of elected mayor/nominated council leader and ceremonial mayor exist concurrently.

Do you have a mayor who represents you?

 

Members of Parliament (MPs) Represents a constituency you at UK parliament level at Westminster in London. Everyone in the UK is represented by an MP in the UK parliament in Westminster. There are 650 MPs representing 650 constituencies.

Who is your MP?

 

Members of devolved parliaments (MS, MSP, MLA) Elected by Constituency & Region. Elected to represent you in devolved parliaments if you live in Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland.

Find your MS, MSP or MLA. How many have you got?

 

Wales has 60 Members of the SeneddCymru/Welsh Parliament (MS) In Wales our hero has 1 constituency MS and 4 regional MS’s

 

Scotland has 129 Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) In Scotland our hero has1 Constituency MSP & 7 regional MSP

 

Northern Ireland has 90 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) In Northern Ireland our hero has 5 constituency MLA.

Once you know who all your elected representatives are you must go seek the oracle – go to  the Electoral Commission for trusted and unbiased public information about your vote and elections.

Our hero is now less alone in the world.

Our hero has many representatives who are paid well to listen  and take on board what matters most to them and to make sure that all voices are heard equally.

Our hero has a trusted and truthful source of information.

Next our hero must travel through the three realms of government and understand each one.

 

Key fact: You have more than one representative. Everyone in the UK is represented by an MP and several councillors and some also elect a mayor. If you live in Wales, Scotland & Northern Ireland you elect members of that devolved parliament/legislature too

 

Chapter 3 The three realms of Government

One strength of democracy is that is shouts ‘remember thou art mortal’ in the face of politicians on a daily basis” – Willie Sullivan – The Missing Scotland

Realm 1. Local Government

Realm 2. Devolved Government

Realm 3. UK Government

Listen to episode  3 of The Democracy Box podcast

The three types of government explained

 

  1. Local government Your council/local authority deals with all the local stuff such as your bins, streets, local public buildings and open spaces like your local parks and your local schools. Some people in the UK will also have a Community, Town or Parish Council. Most local authorities/councils opt for the ‘leader and cabinet’ model where the council leader is selected from the councillors, but in some areas a ‘mayor and cabinet’ model has been adopted, where a directly elected mayor is established to replace the council leader. The Leader or Mayor chooses the Cabinet.

  2. Devolved Governments & Parliaments (Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland) look after most stuff e.g. health, education, culture, sport, agriculture, transport and local government. These are called devolved powers and devolved parliaments have law making powers for these. The leader of the political party with the majority of seats in a devolved parliament becomes First Minister and forms a government and chooses the cabinet.

  3. UK Government & Parliament The leader of the political party with the majority MPs in the UK parliament becomes Prime Minister and forms a government and chooses the cabinet. The UK government & parliament look after some things for the whole of the UK which are ‘Reserved Powers’ and some things for people in just England that are ‘Devolved Powers’ in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

It is very important to understand this about devolution.

The UK Government & Parliament only look after things that are devolved like Health & Education for people in England and not in Wales, Scotland & Northern Ireland.

So when you hear the Prime Minister on the news talking about Health & Education they are only talking about in England.

The UK Government & parliament also look after foreign relations, defence, the constitution, immigration and many aspects of economic policy for the whole of the UK. These are called RESERVED powers. (Sometimes called EXCEPTED powers in Northern Ireland). This means that only the UK parliament and government can make decisions on these matters.

Whichever party wins an election is then in Government and gets to form a Cabinet.

 

Whichever party (or parties) come second become the opposition.

 

If there is no clear winner there may be a Coalition Government.

 

Key fact: Devolved powers include health, education, culture, sport, agriculture, transport and local government and devolved governments have law making powers for these.

The UK Government looks after all the things for people in just England that are devolved in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland and also look after foreign relations, defence, the constitution, immigration and many aspects of economic policy for the whole of the UK. 

These are reserved powers. This means that only the UK parliament and government can make decisions on these matters.

 

 

Chapter 4 Our hero understands that Parliament & Government are two very different things

Listen to episode 4 of The Democracy Box podcast

 

Parliament & government are two very different things.

Basically parliament holds the government to account and makes the laws

 

“..to deny people opportunities to learn how the system works and how to exercise power as citizens, is to deny democracy.” – Titus Alexander

 

PARLIAMENT  basically means DISCUSSION. A parliament is the group of people who are elected to make and change the laws of a country and check everything the Government does. A Parliament is a country’s legislative (law-making) body and is sometimes called a LEGISLATURE . Both words mean an institution that has the power to make or change laws

 

Which is very different to….

GOVERNMENT the group of people who are officially responsible for governing (running) the country or political part of the country.

A Government has 1 job – to run the country

A Parliament has 2 jobs:

 

  1. LEGISLATION Propose new laws & amend (change/make better) existing laws

  2. SCRUTINY Challenge & examine or inspect closely and thoroughly everything the Government/Cabinet is doing.

The UK Parliament

The UK Parliament makes laws for England and for the UK. The UK Parliament scrutinises the UK Government.

The UK Parliament (Westminster in London) is made up of 3 things.

 

  1. Monarch – Has the final seal of approval BUT it is really ceremonial and Queen Elizabeth II has never challenged a law. The Monarch did used to have ALL the power until 1642 when Charles I burst in & tried to arrest some MPs which lead to the monarchy being abolished for 11 years!

  2. The House of Commons – Ordinary people like you and me who have been elected by ordinary people i.e. you and me

  3. The House of Lords – which is the second and non-elected

Decisions made in one House generally have to be approved in the other.

If the House of Commons propose a new law the House of Lords need to approve it before it gets approved and signed off by the Queen. It’s a two way chamber system.

Checks and balances. Making sure everything is fair, right and proper.

Devolved Parliaments The Welsh/Scottish/Northern Irish Devolved Parliaments make and amend their own laws for their own devolved nations. The devolved parliaments scrutinise the devolved Governments.

e.g. Welsh Parliament/SeneddCymru makes laws for Wales and challenges and examines the Welsh government

 

Wales, Scotland & Northern Ireland do not have a second chamber like the House of Lords.

 

All devolved parliaments have law making powers and can create laws about devolved areas without reference to Westminster.

 

It is therefore very important that people in the devolved nations vote in the UK parliamentary general election and the Welsh/Scottish/Northern Ireland elections.

 

A quick bit of history Until 1999, the UK Parliament was the source of all legislation across the whole of the UK (they made all the laws for everywhere). Since devolution, the Scottish Parliament, the Senedd Cymru/Welsh Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly have taken on the task of passing laws for their respective nations and have developed distinctive new bodies of law in areas of devolved responsibility.

One of the laws that the Senedd Cymru/Welsh Parliament has made is the Well-being of Future Generations Act (2015) which gives people in Wales the ambition, permission and legal obligation to improve our social, cultural, environmental and economic well-being. The Well-being of Future Generations Act requires public bodies in Wales to think about the long-term impact of their decisions, to work better with people, communities and each other and to prevent persistent problems such as poverty, health inequalities and climate change.

 

 

KEY FACT: All devolved parliaments have law making powers and can create laws about devolved areas without reference to Westminster.

It is therefore very important that people in the devolved nations vote in the General election AND the Welsh/Scottish/NI elections.

 

 

Chapter 5 The rules of the game part 1 – Voting Ages

previously…politics was seen to belong to the citizen…now we are witnessing the transformation into ‘audience democracy‘” -Peter Mair – Ruling the Void

How old do you have to be to play?

Take the Voting Ages Quiz with Young Co-Creators Lucy & Lloyd

Question: Is the Voting Age 16 or 18?

Answer: Depends where you live & what election you are voting in.

General UK Elections To Vote in General Elections (UK Parliament i.e voting for MPs) wherever you live you have to be 18

Local Elections You can vote in local council elections in England & Northern Ireland (council) at 18 & vote in local council elections in Wales and Scotland at 16

Devolved Parliament Elections Wales & Scotland devolved parliament elections at 16

Northern Ireland devolved parliament elections at 18

Register to Vote

at 14 if you live in Wales & Scotland

or 16 if you live in England

or 17 if you live in Northern Ireland

You can get involved in democracy at any age though by:

exercising your freedom of speech

volunteering

starting or signing a petition

protesting

campaigning

lobbying

contacting your elected representative

joining a youth parliament

finding ways large and small to take part in Civic and Civil Society

We’ve had one person one vote in the UK since 1948 & votes for everyone aged 18 and over since 1969 in UK elections.

News!!! 16 year olds have can now vote in Wales and Scotland devolved parliament elections & Local Elections.

Your vote matters. It is your Right.

Click here to Register to Vote

Check out The Electoral Commission for trusted & unbiased public information about your vote & all elections

 

 

Key fact: To get involved in democracy by exercising your freedom of speech, volunteering, starting or signing a petition, protesting, campaigning, lobbying, contacting your elected representative or finding ways large and small to take part in civic and civil Society = any age!

 

 

Chapter 6 Rules of the game part 2 – voting systems

Voting systems, or electoral systems, are the method by which we elect representatives.  A voting system determines the rules on how we elect parties and candidates.

 

Listen to Episode 5 of The Democracy Box podcast

The House of Commons, Scottish Parliament, Senedd Cymru/Welsh Parliament, Northern Ireland Assembly and UK local authorities use different voting systems.

#

First-past-the-post (FPTP) is a type of electoral system where the candidate with the most votes in a constituency or area/districts wins.

 

Who uses First-past-the-post (FPTP)? The House of Commons and local councils in England and Wales  use the first-past-the-post.

 

Proportional Representation (PR) is a type of electoral system in which the distribution of seats corresponds closely with the proportion of the total votes cast for each party e.g. if a party gained 40% of the total votes, a perfectly proportional system would allow them to gain 40% of the seats in that Parliament or Council.

 

Who uses Proportional Representation (PR)? A mixture of First Past the Post and Proportional Representation is used to elect Members of the Welsh, Scottish and Northern Ireland’s Parliaments.

 

 

 

KEY FACT: Voting systems, or electoral systems, are the method by which we elect representatives.  A voting system determines the rules on how we elect parties and candidates. There is more than one kind used in the UK and there is much debate about the pros and cons of each. 

 

Chapter 7 The Hero’s journey

“Over the last 50 years the number of people voting in national elections has fallen from around 80% to 60% …With a lower turnout democracy becomes meaningless” Peter Macfadyen – Flatpack Democracy (nb in Welsh elections it is less than 50%)

 

The Realms & Rules are not fixed They never were. They have been created and shaped and changed by all the Hero’s past and present and must continue to shift and change to meet the needs of future generations.

Democracy is not fixed or set in stone. It is alive and evolving all the time because it is shaped and decided by the people for the people.

The Rule of Law The key idea of the rule of law is that the law should apply equally to all rulers and ruled alike. This ensures a ‘government of law’’ and not a ‘government of men ‘.In this way, the rule of law establishes the relationship between government and the people.

The Media The UK has a strong independent media history with many different newspaper titles, television and radio channels. The media’s role is to inform the public on important issues that affect them whether these are local, national or international. Most broadcasters (BBC,ITV C4) have it written in to their charters that they must inform all citizens about our UK democracy.

Newspapers remain an important source of political information with millions sold and read online every day.

Bias The media is not unbiased. Different newspapers & media can choose to report the news in different ways. They can take a one-sided approach through their choice of headlines, pictures and stories. Newspapers often support one political party. This can change. It is important to understand what political bias different media sources have. Sometimes it depends on who owns that media outlet. Some urge or seek to influence their readers to vote for one political party of another in the run up to an election.

Fake News The internet & social media allows people almost unlimited access to information which means people are better informed than ever before.  As the internet allows almost anyone to post almost anything they choose, some of the information on the internet is not accurate.

Ten Ways to have your say  Democracy is about having your say and getting involved all year round.

Whether that’s through

exercising your freedom of speech

volunteering

starting or signing a petition

protesting

campaigning

joining a youth parliament

lobbying

contacting your elected representative

finding ways large and small to take part in Civic and Civil Society.

Here are ten ways in no particular order for each and every Hero to make sure their voice is heard & they can help shape and change their local area, region, nation, country for the better for themselves, their families, friends, neighbours, communities and for future generations.

  1. Have conversations with family & friends & share the Story of Our UK Democracy that every citizen should know. Explain all of the above to other hero’s. Critical thought, Debate, Collaboration, Reaching Consensus (agreement) are all key to a good working democracy.

  2. Volunteer & get involved in your local community Democracy starts outside your front door and in your local community all year round. Get to know your neighbours. Find out about and get involved involved in a voluntary body or society which aims to represent the needs of your local community and things which you care about. If one doesn’t already exist, start one! What do you want to change or get fixed or what’s already working well that you want to support?  Volunteer to help with a local community garden, or school (like helping listening to kids read or becoming a school governor or helping with the PTA) or find out about your local health board, parish, community and/or Town Council. Find out about Citizen’s Assemblies, Participatory Budgeting & local initiatives that will help you to raise your voice and be heard about what matters to your and your family and friends.

  3. Find out who your Councillors, Members of Devolved Parliament (if you live in Scotland, Wales or NI) and your MP is. Get in touch with them about what you care about locally, nationally and internationally. Contact your elected representatives by letter, email, and phone or in person. (They should all hold “surgeries” which just means a day when they hold face to face meetings with the people they represent. Some are drop ins and some are by appointment. Find them here at Write To Them & They Work for You

  4. Protest, Campaign & Organise. Join with others to amplify your voices and if you live in Wales use the Future Generations Act in Wales as a framework of best practice. Freedom to assemble (get together with others in public) is your right. Know your rights. get a copy of The Young Citizen’s Passport – a guide to those parts of the law most relevant to the everyday life of young people in England and Wales

  5. Contact the media. From letters pages in your local & national papers, to contacting journalists in the press and recorded media (TV) to social media or simply writing a blog it is your democratic right to “hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers.” Remember at all times the simple rules of our Freedom of Speech – that is comes with duties & responsibilities to protect the freedom and rights of others as well as ourselves & to not incite violence or hatred.

  6. Start a petition and get it debated by a devolved (Welsh parliament) or UK Parliament

  7. Contribute towards a committee’s research. They have to listen to you! Watch out for public consultations too and make sure you have your say about anything which matters to you.

  8. Join a School Council in primary &/or secondary school and/or a Youth Parliament from age 11-18 & when you are 18 or over stand for public office. Yes you!!! Become a Councillor or even stand to be elected as a Member of a devolved parliament or the UK parliament

  9. Register to Vote

  10. Vote Check out The Electoral Commission for trusted & unbiased public information about your vote & all elections & also Where do I vote? Who can I vote for?

 

 

GLOSSARY or put simply what do all those words mean?

Scroll further down for a historical timeline too! I know right. It’s all here!

DEMOCRACY – It is widely accepted that we get our understanding of Democracy from the ancient Greeks and  the word “democracy” comes from two Greek words that mean people (demos) and rule (kratos).

Democracy is the idea that the citizens of a country should take an active role in the government of their country and manage it directly or through elected representatives. In addition, it supports the idea that the people can replace their government through peaceful transfers of power rather than violent uprising or revolution. Thus, a key part of democracy is that the people have a voice.

DEMOCRACY  A system of government in which power is vested in the people, who rule either directly or through freely elected representatives. 

CITIZEN  that’s you! each and every one of us no matter our age, background or circumstances, each and every one of us is a citizen with democratic rights and freedom of speech & can take part in a Civil Society

CIVIL SOCIETY  Sometimes the term civil society is used in the more general sense of the elements such as freedom of speech, an independent judiciary, etc. that make up a democratic society.

It can also mean non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens or individuals and organizations in a society which are independent of the government i.e. voluntary action taken by citizens.

A CIVIC SOCIETY In the UK, a civic society is a voluntary body or society which aims to represent the needs of a local community. A civic society may campaign for high standards of planning of new buildings or traffic schemes, conservation of historic buildings, and may present awards for good standards. They may organise litter collections or “best kept village” clean ups.

The term CIVIC SOCIETY can also refer to the local state where citizens participate in local health boards, schools, planning partnerships voluntary body or society which aims to represent the needs of a local community. and other such mechanisms which ultimately come under the direction of the state.

PARLIAMENT – basically means DISCUSSION and comes from the French word Parler (to speak). The most common meaning refers to a country’s legislative (law-making) body ie the group of people who are elected to make and change the laws of a country

LEGISLATUREan institution that has the power to make or change laws

Which is different to….

GOVERNMENT – the group of people who are officially responsible for governing (running) the country or political part of the country.

A Parliament has 2 jobs:

  1. LEGISLATION Propose new laws & amend (change/make better) existing laws

  2. SCRUTINY Challenge & examine or inspect closely and thoroughly everything the Government/Cabinet is doing.

Basically parliament holds the government to account and makes the laws

WARD/DISTRICT  Councillors represent electoral areas called Divisions, Wards, Districts or Unitary Authority Electoral Division (UTE). I know you couldn’t make this stuff up. This is why the hero’s challenge is so complex! It just means an area around where you live. Find your ward here

CONSTITUENCY MPs and Members of Devolved Parliaments represent people who live in an official geographic area called a Constituency which is a bigger local area than a ward/district. Find your constituency here.

FUN FACT #1Just to keep you on your toes Constituency boundaries change from time. They are based on how many people live in a certain area and because population changes to keep it fair the four Boundary Commissions review and change them occasionally and try to do this to match changes to wards/districts.

REGION –Wales is divided into 5 regions. Find your region here.

COUNCIL a body of people elected to manage the affairs of a city, county, or other municipal district

DEVOLUTION is about the transfer of power by a central government to local or regional administrations.

Devolution has been an evolving process that has responded to public demands and transformed the United Kingdom’s political and constitutional landscape. It has brought about a democratic shift by bringing decision-making closer to people across the UK. The people of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, as well as those represented by Metropolitan Mayors, can have an increasingly greater say in the policies that affect them.

COALITIONcoalition government is a government formed jointly by more than one political party. Parties may decide to form a coalition government if there is a Hung Parliament which simply means no one political party has won a working majority

FIRST PAST THE POST     In a general or local election, voters put a cross (X) next to their preferred candidate on a ballot paper. Ballot papers are counted. The candidate with the most votes wins and represents that constituency in Parliament or ward at the local Council.

PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION In Welsh/Scottish Parliament Elections all the votes cast for each political party in a Region are counted so that the % of votes cast for each party decides the number of regional members each party has in parliament to represent all those who voted in that region.

RULE OF LAW The key idea of the rule of law is that the law should apply equally to all rulers and ruled alike. This ensures a ‘government of law’’ and not a ‘government of men ‘.In this way, the rule of law establishes the relationship between government and the people.

No one is above the law. The law treats ALL citizens equally. All disputes must be solved by the law and human rights must be protected by the law.  Judges are meant to be strictly impartial and non-political

The rule of law is the principle that the law should rule in the sense that it applies to all conduct and behaviour and covers both private and public officials. Sub-principles are that no one is above the law, that there is equality for all before the law, that the law is always applied and that legal redress is available through the courts.

If Parliament passes legislation that is not clear, accessible and predictable; is not an adequate protection of human rights and does not provide good and equal access to justice for all then the Supreme Court can amend it or overrule it.

 

The Four Levels of Democratic/Voter Information

 

4 levels of Voter Information Created by Omidaze & Illustrated by Maria Elorza Saralegu

 

 

TIMELINE

1215

Ah hello you must be King John. Excellent. So its 1215 and you have just signed the Magna Carta – Congratulations – (realise you lost the battle which meant you had to do it!) you have just ensured that no one – yep not even the King is above the law and an advisory council of 25 barons have got you to sign up to 63 rules about how the country and the law will operate. Thank you King John good to meet you.

1265

Well well Simon de Montfort – quite a character – good to meet you – and you have just rebelled against King Henry III isn’t that right and created the first ever parliament with invited representatives from the towns and shires. Well let’s hear a big thank you to Simon for creating the first parliament for us and going on to create the first model parliament with a House of Commons and a House of Lords.

1414

Ah yes I see a bit of time has passed now and finally the Monarch – Henry V to be exact does actually finally acknowledge that the approval of both Houses (Commons AND Lords) is necessary to make a new law. Well Henry still the system we have today so many thanks for that acknowledgement back in 1414.

1536

Leaping forward over 100 years and here we meet another Monarch – hello Henry VIII – looking very well – and you have just joined England and Wales I gather? Yes the Act of Union in 1536 isn’t that right Henry. You made sure England and Wales have to follow the same laws and is Wales now represented in Parliament? Marvellous. Oh and your palace , Westminster Palace had gone on fire a few years back hadn’t it? Did you move out? Yes? Give it to Parliament? Fair enough. They still use it you know. One of the most iconic buildings in the world. Thank you.

1605

Ah Guy Fawkes – hmmm – well now trying to blow up parliament is not good. Yes yes we understand Catholics were being persecuted but really blow up the House of Parliament???! You will be burnt on bonfires for 400 years for that!!!

1649

Now then King Charles I good to meet you. Gosh its all been going on with you hasn’t it. You burst into parliament 7 years ago trying to arrest some MPs and well no monarch has been allowed in since. And then you go and start the English Civil War. Good Grief man no wonder you lose your head. Tried in 1649 in the Great Hall at Westminster and Executed. You’d better sit down!

So 1649 the House of Commons abolishes the monarchy (kicks over/turn throne upside down) AND the House of Lords (remove sign)! And England is declared a Commonwealth. Then in 1653…

1653

Oliver Cromwell how are you? Made Lord Protector I understand? Great. What happens when you die. New Lord Protector democratically elected? No? Ah your son inherits the title. Ah right and then he is deposed and then we have political anarchy? Right. Maybe you should have thought about holding a general election!!

1660

Hang on the Monarchy is back. Yep here is Charles I’s son Charles well yes you guessed it Charles II and guess what he restores the House of Lords too

1668/9

So the king is back until hello Mr William of Orange from Holland. Just popped over from Holland to invade us and take the throne off James II yes? Right. And what’s that this leads to the Bill of Rights eh? Yes it most certainly does. So William what does the Bill of Rights do exactly? Doesn’t it constitutionally prevent the absolute rule of Kings and Queens and make Parliament the true seat of power which it remains until this day?

Thought so.

1707

Well in 1707 we had another Act of Union this time between England and Scotland and then in 1721…. Hello you must be Sir Robert Walpole…acknowledged as the 1st ever Prime Minister. Lovely to meet you So you are the longest EVER serving PM. How many years was it? 21? Amazing. And King George II gave you a house to live in I understand and here are the keys to number 10 Downing Street London. Congratulations Mr Walpole. (give him keys to 10 Downing St)

Now not many people could vote back in 1707. In fact you had to own a large property and have a lot of money but thank fully in

1832 & 1837 there were a couple of reform acts and by the second all male householders, not matter how much their house was worth, could vote. Well that’s good for all the men but it wasn’t until 1918 that

1918

Women finally got the vote (5 years after Emily Davison threw herself under the King’s horse to get women the vote in 1913) and all men could vote whether or not they owned a house.

1919

One year later the first ever female MP was elected – Nancy Astor

Only women over 30 who owned property could vote mind you until…

1928

All women aged over 21 get the vote

1948

We finally had one person one vote

1950

The European Coal and Steel Community was formed which was the beginning of the EU (European Union) and was formed to help keep peace in Europe after WWII

1964

The labour party creates the Welsh Office

1969

The voting age was lowered to 18.

1973

UK finally joined the EEC in

1979

First Welsh Referendum on independence. Majority vote against

1997

People of Wales hold another referendum the majority vote in favour (just) (50.3%/49.7%) of Wales being a devolved nation and creating a Welsh Assembly.

Until 1999, the UK Parliament was the source of all legislation across the whole of the UK (ie made all the laws).

1999

Devolution.  Since devolution, the Scottish Parliament, the Welsh Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly have taken on the task of passing laws for their respective nations and have developed distinctive new bodies of law in areas of devolved responsibility.

2006

The Senedd opens (Senedd is Welsh for parliament)

2011

Referendum on giving Welsh assembly law making powers without need to ask Westminster. There are 21 areas which are devolved and which the Welsh Assembly can create laws about without reference to Westminster so it is very important that people of Wales vote in the General election AND the Welsh elections

2015

Welsh Government passes the Well-being of Future Generations Act (2015) which gives people in Wales the ambition, permission and legal obligation to improve their social, cultural, environmental and economic well-being. The Well-being of Future Generations Act requires public bodies in Wales to think about the long-term impact of their decisions, to work better with people, communities and each other and to prevent persistent problems such as poverty, health inequalities and climate change.

2015

Scotland passes law to allow 16 year olds to vote in Scottish and Local Government elections

2016

UK voted to leave the EU

2020

Welsh Government passes law to allow 16 year olds to have the vote in Welsh elections.

Senedd’s name is changed to Senedd Cymru/Welsh Parliament.

UK left the EU

Crynodeb y prif bynciau o’r saith pennod

Cyfeiriwch at y penodau llawn ar y wefan i weld cynnwys estynedig

https://www.omidaze.co.uk/blog/our-democracy-story-that-every-uk-citizen-should-know-in-five-chapters/

Ymlaen – y cwestiynau mawr. Da ar gyfer cynnwys rhyngweithiol:

Pwy sy’n dal y pŵer? Pa bwer sydd gen i?

Pam pleidleisio o gwbl? Pam cymryd rhan?

Pam fod ots? Beth sydd a wnelo Democratiaeth â mi?

Pwy sy’n becso? Sut y bydd yn helpu?

Beth fydd o’n gwneud? Beth yw pleidlais beth bynnag?

Pam na ddysgais i hyn i gyd yn yr ysgol?

Pwy sy’n fy nghynrychioli a pham, sut a ble?

Beth yw’r gwahaniaeth rhwng y senedd a’r llywodraeth?

Pennod 1 – Arwr ein stori – cyfeiriad uniongyrchol i ddilynwyr

Arwr ein stori yw chi ein cynulleidfa

CHI y dinesydd. CHI’r Pleidleisiwr!

Heboch chi nid yw ein stori gyfunol am ddemocratiaeth yn bodoli’n iawn mewn gwirionedd. Oherwydd bod y bobl yn rheoli ac mae hynny’n golygu eich bod chi’n rheoli!

Rydych chi’n pleidleisio o blaid ac yn ethol y bobl rydych chi am eich cynrychioli chi yn eich cyngor a’ch senedd i drafod pethau ar eich rhan.

Rydych chi’n ethol cynrychiolwyr i wneud y deddfau ar eich rhan ac i edrych yn ofalus ar bopeth sy’n digwydd ac ar yr hyn y mae llywodraethau’n penderfynu.

Ac rydych chi’n ethol y bobl sy’n cael ffurfio’r llywodraethau yma.

Rydych chi’n talu’r holl gynrychiolwyr etholedig, maent yn gweithio i chi ac mae’n rhaid iddyn nhw wrando arnoch chi trwy gydol y flwyddyn nid dim ond adeg yr etholiad.

Pleidleisio yw eich hawl. Eich braint.

Dydy democratiaeth ddim yn ymwneud â phleidleisio yn unig.

Mae democratiaeth angen chi ac ydy chi phob diwrnod o’r flwyddyn nid dim ond ar ddiwrnodau etholiad.

Mae democratiaeth yn ymwneud â dweud eich dweud a chymryd rhan trwy gydol y flwyddyn. Os ydy hyny’n olygu arfer eich rhyddid i lefaru, gwirfoddoli, cychwyn neu lofnodi deiseb, protestio, ymgyrchu, ymuno â senedd ieuenctid, lobïo, cysylltu â’ch cynrychiolydd etholedig neu ddod o hyd i ffyrdd i gymryd rhan mewn Cymdeithas Ddinesig a Sifil.

Mae democratiaeth yn effeithio ar eich bywyd bob dydd. O sut a phryd y cesglir eich sbwriel ac atgyweirio eich strydoedd, i sut mae’ch ysgol a’ch ysbyty yn cael eu rhedeg i sut rydych chi’n cydweithredu ag eraill yn eich cymuned er budd eich cymuned.

FFAITH ALLWEDDOL Mae democratiaeth yn ymwneud â CHI. Nodwedd sylfaenol democratiaeth ydy’r gallu i pob pleidleisiwr gymryd rhan yn rhydd ac yn llawn ym mywyd eu cymdeithas

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Pennod 2 – Pwy yw fy nghynrychiolwyr etholedig?

Mae ganddoch chi mwy nag un cynrychiolwr etholedig. Mae pawb yn y DU yn cael ei gynrychioli gan AS (Aelod Seneddol), llawer o Gynghorwyr, a mae rhai hefyd yn ethol Maer. Os ydych chi’n byw mewn cenedl ddatganoledig (Cymru, yr Alban a Gogledd Iwerddon) rydych chi’n ethol aelodau o’r senedd / ddeddfwrfa ddatganoledig honno hefyd.

Etholir CYNGHORWYR gan Ward / Dosbarth i’ch cynrychioli yn LEFEL LLYWODRAETH LEOL. Bydd gennych sawl Cynghorydd sydd yn eich cynrychioli ar Lefel Cyngor Dinas neu Sir â elwir yn aml yn Awdurdod Lleol i chi. Efallai y bydd gennych Gynghorwyr sy’n eich cynrychioli  mewn Cynghorau Tref, Cymuned a Phlwyf hefyd.

MEIRI  – Mae’r mwyafrif o awdurdodau lleol yn dewis y model ‘arweinydd a chabinet’ lle mae arweinydd y cyngor yn cael ei ddewis o’r cynghorwyr, ond mewn rhai ardaloedd mae model ‘maer a chabinet’ wedi’i fabwysiadu. Hynny yw, lle sefydlir maer a etholir yn uniongyrchol i gymryd lle arweinydd y cyngor. Mae gan lawer o awdurdodau meiri etholedig neu yn ei lle – faer seremonïol. Does gan faer seremonïol ddim pŵer gweithredol ac mae dwy rôl maer etholedig / arweinydd cyngor enwebedig a maer seremonïol yn bodoli ar yr un pryd.

AELODAU LLYWODRAETHAU DATBLYGU (AS, ASA, ACD) Etholwyd gan Etholaeth a Rhanbarth. Etholwyd i’ch cynrychioli ym maes LLYWODRAETH DATBLYGU os ydych chi’n byw yng Nghymru, yr Alban neu Ogledd Iwerddon

Mae gan GYMRU 60 Aelod o Senedd Cymru (AS) Yng Nghymru mae gan ein harwr 1 AS gan Etholaeth a 4 AS Rhanbarthol

 

FFAITH ALLWEDDOL: Mae gennych chi fwy nag un cynrychiolydd. Cynrychiolir pawb yn y DU gan AS a sawl Cynghorydd ac mae rhai hefyd yn ethol Maer. Os ydych chi’n byw mewn cenedl ddatganoledig (Cymru, yr Alban a Gogledd Iwerddon) rydych chi’n ethol aelodau o’r Senedd / Cyfreithlondeb datganoledig hwnnw hefyd

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 Pennod 3  LLYWODRAETH

Y TRI MATH O LYWODRAETH WEDI’I ESBONIO

  1. Llywodraeth lleol (eich Cyngor / Awdurdod Lleol) yn delio â’r holl bethau LLEOL – eich biniau, strydoedd, adeiladau cyhoeddus lleol ac ardaloedd agored fel eich parciau lleol a’ch ysgolion lleol. Bydd gan rai pobl yn y DU Gyngor Cymuned, Tref neu Blwyf hefyd. Mae’r mwyafrif o awdurdodau lleol (Cynghorau) yn dewis y model ‘arweinydd a chabinet’ lle mae arweinydd y cyngor yn cael ei ddewis o’r cynghorwyr, ond mewn rhai ardaloedd mae model ‘maer a chabinet’ wedi’i fabwysiadu, lle mae maer wedi’i ethol yn uniongyrchol wedi’i sefydlu i gymryd lle’r arweinydd y cyngor. Yr Arweinydd neu’r Maer sy’n dewis y Cabinet.
  2. Llywodraethau datganoledig (Cymru, yr Alban, Gogledd Iwerddon) sy’n gofalu am y mwyafrif o bethau e.e. Iechyd, Addysg, Diwylliant, Chwaraeon, Amaethyddiaeth, Trafnidiaeth a Llywodraeth Leol. Mae’r rhain yn bwerau DATGANOLEDIG ac mae gan lywodraethau datganoledig bwerau deddfu ar gyfer y rhain. Mae arweinydd y blaid wleidyddol sydd â mwyafrif y seddi mewn senedd ddatganoledig yn dod yn Brif Weinidog ac yn ffurfio llywodraeth ac yn dewis y cabinet.
  3. Llywodraeth y DU Mae arweinydd y blaid wleidyddol gyda’r mwyafrif o ASau yn Senedd y DU yn dod yn Brif Weinidog, yn ffurfio llywodraeth, ac yn dewis y cabinet. Mae Llywodraeth y DU yn gofalu am yr holl bethau i bobl yn Lloegr yn unig sydd wedi’u datganoli yng Nghymru, yr Alban a Gogledd Iwerddon. Maen’t hefyd yn gofalu am gysylltiadau tramor, amddiffyn, y cyfansoddiad, mewnfudo a sawl agwedd ar bolisi economaidd ar gyfer y DU gyfan. Mae’r rhain yn bwerau NEULLTUEDIG. Mae hyn yn golygu mai dim ond senedd a llywodraeth y DU all wneud penderfyniadau ar y materion hyn.

Mae pa bynnag blaid sy’n ennill yr etholiad ydy’r Llywodraeth ac yn gorfod ffurfio Cabinet.

Mae pa bynnag blaid (neu bleidiau) a ddaeth yn ail yn dod yn wrthblaid.

Os nad oes enillydd clir efallai y bydd Llywodraeth Glymblaid.

FFAITH ALLWEDDOL: Mae pwerau DATGANOLEDIG yn cynnwys Iechyd, Addysg, Diwylliant, Chwaraeon, Amaethyddiaeth, Trafnidiaeth a Llywodraeth Leol ac mae gan lywodraethau datganoledig bwerau deddfu ar gyfer y rhain. Mae Llywodraeth y DU yn gofalu am yr holl bethau i bobl yn Lloegr yn unig sydd wedi’u datganoli yng Nghymru, yr Alban a Gogledd Iwerddon a hefyd yn gofalu am gysylltiadau tramor, amddiffyn, y cyfansoddiad, mewnfudo a sawl agwedd ar bolisi economaidd ar gyfer y DU gyfan. Mae’r rhain yn bwerau CADARNHAU. Mae hyn yn golygu mai dim ond senedd a llywodraeth y DU all wneud penderfyniadau ar y materion hyn.

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Pennod 4 SENEDD

Rhaid i’n Harwr ddeall y gwahaniaeth rhwng y Senedd a’r Llywodraeth

SENEDD – yn y bôn yn golygu TRAFODAETH ac yn dod o’r gair Ffrangeg Parler (i siarad). Mae’r ystyr mwyaf cyffredin yn cyfeirio at gorff deddfwriaethol (deddfu) gwlad hy y grŵp o bobl sy’n cael eu hethol i lunio a newid deddfau gwlad

DEDDFWRIAETH – Yw’r Sefydliad sydd â’r pŵer i greu neu newid deddfau sy’n wahanol i…

LLYWODRAETH – y grŵp o bobl sy’n swyddogol gyfrifol am lywodraethu (rhedeg) y wlad neu ran wleidyddol y wlad.

Mae gan Senedd 2 swydd:

  1. DEDDFWRIAETH Cynnig deddfau newydd a diwygio (newid / gwella) deddfau presennol
  2. SCRUTINY Herio ac archwilio neu archwilio popeth y mae’r Llywodraeth / Cabinet yn ei wneud yn agos ac yn drylwyr.

Yn syml, mae’r senedd yn dal y llywodraeth gyfrifol ac yn llunio’r deddfau.

Senedd y DU

Mae Senedd y DU yn deddfu ar gyfer Lloegr ac ar gyfer y DU. Mae Senedd y DU yn craffu Llywodraeth y DU.

Mae Senedd y DU (San Steffan yn Llundain) yn cynnwys 3 pheth.

  • Brenhiniaeth – Mae gen y Frenhinaeth y sêl bendith olaf OND mae’n seremonïol mewn gwirionedd ac nid yw’r Frenhines Elizabeth II erioed wedi herio deddf. Arferai’r Frenhines gael POB pŵer hyd at 1642 pan ffrwydrodd Siarl I i fewn a cheisio arestio rhai ASau, arweiniodd hyn at ddiddymu’r frenhiniaeth am 11 mlynedd!
  • Tŷ’r Cyffredin – Pobl gyffredin fel chi a fi sydd wedi cael eu hethol gan bobl gyffredin h.y. chi a fi.
  • Tŷ’r Arglwyddi – sef yr ail a’r anetholedig

Yn gyffredinol mae’n rhaid cymeradwyo penderfyniadau a wneir mewn un Tŷ yn y llall.

Os yw Tŷ’r Cyffredin yn cynnig deddf newydd mae angen i Dŷ’r Arglwyddi ei chymeradwyo cyn iddo gael ei gymeradwyo a’i lofnodi gan y Frenhines. Mae’n system siambr ddwy ffordd.

Gwiriadau a balansau. Gwneud yn siŵr bod popeth yn deg, yn iawn ac yn briodol.

Seneddau datganoledig

Mae Seneddau datganoledig Cymru / yr Alban / Gogledd Iwerddon yn gwneud ac yn diwygio deddfau ar gyfer eu cenhedloedd datganoledig.

Mae’r seneddau datganoledig yn craffu ar y Llywodraethau datganoledig.

Mae Senedd Cymru yn gwneud deddfau i Gymru ac yn herio ac archwilio llywodraeth Cymru yn drylwyr ac yn ofalus.

Nid oes gan Gymru, yr Alban a Gogledd Iwerddon ail siambr fel Tŷ’r Arglwyddi.

Mae gan bob senedd ddatganoledig bwerau deddfu a gallant greu deddfau ynghylch meysydd datganoledig heb gyfeirio at San Steffan.

Felly mae’n bwysig iawn bod pobl yn y cenhedloedd datganoledig yn pleidleisio yn yr etholiad Cyffredinol AC yn etholiadau Cymru / yr Alban / Gogledd Iwerddon.

Un o’r deddfau y mae Llywodraeth Cymru wedi’u gwneud yw Well-being of Future Generations Act (2015) sy’n rhoi uchelgais, caniatâd a rhwymedigaeth gyfreithiol i bobl yng Nghymru wella ein lles cymdeithasol, diwylliannol, amgylcheddol ac economaidd. Mae Deddf Lles Cenhedlaeth y Dyfodol yn ei gwneud yn ofynnol i gyrff cyhoeddus yng Nghymru feddwl am effaith hirdymor eu penderfyniadau, gweithio’n well gyda phobl, cymunedau a’i gilydd ac atal problemau parhaus fel tlodi, anghydraddoldebau iechyd a newid yn yr hinsawdd.

FFAITH ALLWEDDOL: Mae gan bob senedd ddatganoledig bwerau deddfu a gallant creu deddfau ynghylch meysydd datganoledig heb gyfeirio at San Steffan.

Felly mae’n bwysig iawn bod pobl yn y cenhedloedd datganoledig yn pleidleisio yn yr etholiad Cyffredinol AC yn etholiadau Cymru / yr Alban / Gogledd Iwerddon.

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Pennod 5 OEDRAN PLEIDLEISIO

YN FAWR AM BOLL!

Rheolau’r gêm mae’n rhaid i’n harwr wybod # 1

PA MOR HEN OES RHAID ICHI FOD I CHWARAE?

Pleidleisio mewn Etholiadau Cyffredinol (Senedd y DU) = 18

Pleidleisio mewn Etholiadau Lleol yn Lloegr a Gogledd Iwerddon = 18

Pleidleisio yn Etholiadau Llywodraeth Leol yng Nghymru a’r Alban = 16

I Bleidleisio yn Etholiadau Senedd Ddatganedig Gogledd Iwerddon = 18

I Bleidleisio yng Nghymru a’r Etholiadau Senedd Ddatganoledig = 16

I Gofrestru i Bleidleisio = 14 (Cymru a’r Alban) 16 (Lloegr a Gogledd Iwerddon)

Fedrwch cymryd rhan mewn democratiaeth trwy arfer eich rhyddid i lefaru, gwirfoddoli, cychwyn neu lofnodi deiseb, protestio, ymgyrchu, lobïo, cysylltu â’ch cynrychiolydd etholedig, ymuno â senedd ieuenctid neu ddod o hyd i ffyrdd mawr a bach i gymryd rhan yn y Gymdeithas Ddinesig a Sifil = unrhyw oedran!

Rydym wedi cael un bleidlais un person yn y DU er 1948 a phleidleisiau i bawb 18 oed a hŷn er 1969 yn etholiadau’r DU.

Bellach gall pobl ifanc 16 oed bleidleisio yn etholiadau seneddol datganoledig Cymru a’r Alban.

Mae eich pleidlais yn bwysig. Eich Hawl chi ydyw.

FFAITH ALLWEDDOL: Cymryd rhan mewn democratiaeth ydy arfer eich rhyddid i lefaru, gwirfoddoli, cychwyn neu lofnodi deiseb, protestio, ymgyrchu, lobïo, cysylltu â’ch cynrychiolydd etholedig neu ddod o hyd i ffyrdd mawr a bach i gymryd rhan yn y Gymdeithas Ddinesig a Sifil = unrhyw oedran !

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Pennod 6 SYSTEMAU PLEIDLEISIO

Rheolau’r Gêm mae’n rhaid i’n harwr wybod # 2

PA FERSIWN O’R GÊM YDY EIN ARWR DEFNYDDIO? 

Systemau pleidleisio, neu systemau etholiadol, yw’r dull yr ydym yn ethol cynrychiolwyr ynddo. Mae system bleidleisio yn pennu’r rheolau ar sut rydyn ni’n ethol pleidiau ac ymgeiswyr.

Mae Tŷ’r Cyffredin, Senedd yr Alban, Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru, Cynulliad Gogledd Iwerddon ac awdurdodau lleol y DU yn defnyddio gwahanol systemau pleidleisio.

Math o system etholiadol yw Yn gyntaf heibio’r post (CHP) lle mae’r ymgeisydd sydd â’r nifer fwyaf o bleidleisiau mewn etholaeth neu ardal / ardaloedd yn ennill.

Pwy sy’n defnyddio Cyntaf Heibio’r Post (CHP)? Mae Tŷ’r Cyffredin a chynghorau lleol yng Nghymru a Lloegr a Senedd Ddatganoledig Gogledd Iwerddon yn defnyddio’r system Cyntaf Heibio’r Post.

Proportional Representation (PR) is a type of electoral system in which the distribution of seats corresponds closely with the proportion of the total votes cast for each party e.g. if a party gained 40% of the total votes, a perfectly proportional system would allow them to gain 40% of the seats in that Parliament or Council.

Math o system etholiadol yw Cynrychiolaeth Gyfrannol (PR) lle mae dosbarthiad y seddi yn cyfateb yn agos â chyfran cyfanswm y pleidleisiau sydd gan pob plaid e.e. pe bai plaid yn ennill 40% o gyfanswm y pleidleisiau, byddai system berffaith gyfrannol yn caniatáu iddynt ennill 40% o’r seddi yn y Senedd neu’r Cyngor hwnnw.

Pwy sy’n defnyddio Cynrychiolaeth Gyfrannol (PR)? Defnyddir cymysgedd o Gyntaf Heibio’r Post a Chynrychiolaeth Gyfrannol i ethol Aelodau Seneddau Cymraeg Cymru a’r Alban.

FFAITH ALLWEDDOL: Systemau pleidleisio, neu systemau etholiadol, yw’r dull yr ydym yn ethol cynrychiolwyr. Mae system bleidleisio yn pennu’r rheolau ar sut rydyn ni’n ethol pleidiau ac ymgeiswyr. Defnyddir mwy nag un math yn y DU ac mae llawer o ddadlau ynghylch manteision ac anfanteision pob un.

 

 

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PENNOD 7 – SIAPIO DEMOCRATIAETH A’R DYFODOL

Rhaid i’n Harwr nawr ymgysylltu â’r tri maes, dewis eu cynrychiolwyr etholedig a chymryd rhan mewn Democratiaeth i siapio’r dyfodol.

 

NID YW’R DEYRNASAU & RHEOLAU YN SEFYDLOG (THE REALMS & RULES ARE NOT FIXED) Nid oeddent erioed. Maent wedi cael eu creu, siapio a’u newid gan yr holl Arwyr o’r gorffennol a’r presennol a rhaid iddynt barhau i symud a newid i ddiwallu anghenion cenedlaethau’r dyfodol.

Nid yw democratiaeth yn sefydlog nac wedi’i gosod yn gadarn. Mae’n fyw ac yn esblygu trwy’r amser oherwydd ei fod yn cael ei siapio a’i benderfynu gan y bobl, ar gyfer y bobl.

RHEOL Y GYFRAITH (RULE OF LAW) Syniad allweddol rheolaeth y gyfraith yw y dylai’r gyfraith fod yr un mor berthnasol i bob person. Mae hyn yn sicrhau ‘llywodraeth y gyfraith’ ’ac nid‘ llywodraeth dynion ’. Yn y modd hwn, mae rheolaeth y gyfraith yn sefydlu’r berthynas rhwng y llywodraeth a’r bobl.

Y CYFRYNGAU (SOCIAL MEDIA)

Mae hyn yn olygu gall gwahanol bapurau newydd ddewis adrodd y newyddion mewn gwahanol ffyrdd.

Yn eu dewis o straeon, lluniau a phenawdau, gall papurau newydd gymryd agwedd unochrog tuag at adrodd ar newyddion.

Mae rhai papurau newydd yn glir iawn ynghylch pa blaid wleidyddol maen nhw’n ei chefnogi (yn aml yn dibynnu ar bwy sy’n berchen ar y papur newydd hwnnw) ac yn annog eu darllenwyr i bleidleisio dros un blaid wleidyddol neu’r llall yn y cyfnod sy’n arwain at etholiad.

Rhagfarn (BIAS)– O fewn deddfau’r tir gall papurau newydd argraffu mwy neu lai yr hyn maen nhw’n ei hoffi. Mae hyn yn golygu y gall gwahanol bapurau newydd ddewis cyfleu’r newyddion mewn gwahanol ffyrdd. Trwy ei dewis o straeon, lluniau a phenawdau, gall papurau newydd gymryd agwedd unochrog tuag at adrodd ar newyddion. Mae papurau newydd yn aml yn glir iawn ynglyn a pha blaid wleidyddol y maent yn ei chefnogi (yn aml yn dibynnu ar bwy sy’n berchen ar y papur newydd hwnnw) ac yn annog eu darllenwyr i bleidleisio dros un blaid wleidyddol yn lle’r plaid arall yn ystod y cyfnod sy’n arwain at etholiad.

Newyddion Ffug (FAKE NEWS) – Mae’r rhyngrwyd a’r cyfryngau cymdeithasol yn caniatáu’r cyhoedd i gael mynediad diderfyn i wybodaeth sy’n golygu bod pobl yn fwy gwybodus nag erioed o’r blaen. Gan fod y rhyngrwyd yn caniatáu i bron unrhyw un bostio bron unrhyw beth maen nhw’n ei ddewis, nid yw pob darn o wybodaeth ar y rhyngrwyd yn gywir.

NAW FFORDD – Rhestr hygyrch ar gyfer postiau hawdd a cyflym

NINE WAYS  – Accessible list for easy snippet posts

Mae democratiaeth yn ymwneud â dweud eich dweud a chymryd rhan trwy gydol y flwyddyn. Boed hynny trwy arfer eich rhyddid i lefaru, gwirfoddoli, cychwyn neu lofnodi deiseb, protestio, ymgyrchu, ymuno â senedd ieuenctid, lobïo, cysylltu â’ch cynrychiolydd etholedig neu ddod o hyd i ffyrdd mawr a bach i gymryd rhan yn y Gymdeithas Ddinesig a Sifil. Dyma ddeg ffordd mewn dim trefn benodol i bob Arwr sicrhau bod eu llais yn cael ei glywed a gallant helpu i lunio a newid eu hardal leol, rhanbarthol, cenedlaethol, a gwleidyddol er gwell iddyn nhw eu hunain, eu teuluoedd, ffrindiau, cymdogion, cymunedau ac ar gyfer cenedlaethau’r dyfodol.

  • Cofrestrwch i Bleidleisio
    1. Pleidleisio Ble ydw i’n pleidleisio? Ar gyfer pwy y gallaf bleidleisio?
    2. Cysylltwch â’ch cynrychiolwyr etholedig trwy lythyr, e-bost, a ffôn neu’n bersonol. Dewch o hyd iddyn nhw yma yn Write To Them & They Work for You
    3. Dechreuwch ddeiseb a cael y senedd ddatganoledig (senedd Cymru) neu Senedd y DU i ddadlau.
  • Cyfrannu at ymchwil pwyllgor
  1. Protestio ac Ymgyrchu. Trefnu. Ymunwch ag eraill i ehangu’ch lleisiau a defnyddio Deddf Cenedlaethau’r Dyfodol yng Nghymru fel fframwaith arfer gorau
  2. Gwirfoddoli – cymerwch ran mewn corff neu gymdeithas wirfoddol sy’n ceisio cynrychioli anghenion eich cymuned leol. Gwirfoddoli i helpu’ch bwrdd iechyd lleol neu ysgol trwy dod yn llywodraethwr ysgol neu helpu gyda’r RAC
  3. Cael sgyrsiau gyda theulu a ffrindiau a rhannu Stori Ein Democratiaeth yn y DU y dylai pob dinesydd ei wybod. Esboniwch bob un o’r uchod i arwr arall.
  4. Ymunwch â Senedd Ieuenctid rhwng 11-18 oed a phan ydych yn 18 oed neu’n hŷn, sefyll am swydd gyhoeddu.

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POSTIAU SYML AM DIFFINIDAU HAWDD – YN WYTHNOSOL?

BYSTIO JARGON

GEIRFA neu yn syml beth mae’r holl eiriau hynny’n ei olygu?

DEMOCRATIAETH (DEMOCRACY)– Yr hen Roegiaid oedd y cyntaf i greu democratiaeth. Daw’r gair “democratiaeth” o ddau air Groeg sy’n golygu pobl (demos) a rheoli (kratos). Democratiaeth yw’r syniad y dylai dinasyddion gwlad chwarae rhan weithredol mewn llywodraeth eu gwlad a’i rheoli’n uniongyrchol neu drwy gynrychiolwyr etholedig. Yn ogystal, mae’n cefnogi’r syniad y gall y bobl ddisodli eu llywodraeth trwy drosglwyddo pŵer yn heddychlon yn hytrach na gwrthryfelion treisgar neu chwyldro. Felly, rhan allweddol o ddemocratiaeth yw bod gan y bobl lais.

DEMOCRATIAETH = System lywodraethol lle mae pŵer yn cael ei freinio ar y bobl sy’n llywodraethu naill ai’n uniongyrchol neu drwy gynrychiolwyr a etholir yn rhydd.

CYMDEITHAS DINESIG (CIVIC SOCIETY) Yn y DU, corff neu gymdeithas wirfoddol yw cymdeithas ddinesig sy’n ceisio cynrychioli anghenion cymuned leol. Gall cymdeithas ddinesig ymgyrchu amdan safonau uchel o gynllunio adeiladau neu gynlluniau traffig newydd, cadwraeth adeiladau hanesyddol, a gallent cyflwyno gwobrau am safonau da. Gallent drefnu casgliadau sbwriel neu lanhau “pentref a gedwir orau”.

Gall y term CYMDEITHAS DINESIG hefyd cyfeirio at y wladwriaeth leol lle mae dinasyddion yn cymryd rhan mewn byrddau iechyd lleol, ysgolion, partneriaethau cynllunio corff gwirfoddol neu gymdeithas sy’n anelu at gynrychioli anghenion cymuned leol a mecanweithiau eraill o’r fath sy’n dod o dan gyfarwyddyd y wladwriaeth yn y pen draw.

CYMDEITHAS SIFIL (A CIVIL SOCIETY)

Sefydliadau a sefydliadau anllywodraethol sy’n amlygu diddordebau dinasyddion neu unigolion a sefydliadau mewn cymdeithas sy’n annibynnol i’r llywodraeth hyny yw camau gwirfoddol a gymerir gan ddinasyddion. Weithiau defnyddir y term cymdeithas sifil yn ystyr fwy cyffredinol yr elfennau fel rhyddid barn, barnwriaeth annibynnol, ac ati sy’n rhan o gymdeithas ddemocrataidd

SENEDDOL (PARLIAMENT)  – yn y bôn yn golygu TRAFODAETH ac yn dod o’r gair Ffrangeg Parler (i siarad). Mae’r ystyr mwyaf cyffredin yn cyfeirio at gorff deddfwriaethol (deddfu) gwlad hy y grŵp o bobl sy’n cael eu hethol i greu a newid deddfau gwlad.

DEDDFWRIAETH (LEGISLATURE) – sefydliad sydd â’r pŵer i greu neu newid deddfau

Sy’n wahanol i….

LLYWODRAETH (GOVERNMENT) – y grŵp o bobl sy’n swyddogol gyfrifol am lywodraethu (rhedeg) y wlad neu ran wleidyddol y wlad.

Mae gan Senedd 2 swydd:

  1. DEDDFWRIAETH Cynnig deddfau newydd a diwygio (newid / gwella) deddfau presennol
  2. CRAFFU Herio ac archwilio popeth y mae’r Llywodraeth / Cabinet yn ei wneud yn agos ac yn drylwyr.

Yn syml, mae’r senedd yn dal y llywodraeth yn gyfrifol ac yn creu’r deddfau

WARD / DOSBARTH – Mae cynghorwyr yn cynrychioli meysydd etholiadol o’r enw Is-adrannau, Wardiau, Ardaloedd neu Is-adran Etholiadol Awdurdod Unedol (IEAU). Rwy’n gwybod na allech chi wneud y pethau hyn i fyny. Dyma pam mae her yr arwr mor gymhleth! Yn syml mae’n olygu yr ardal lle rydych chi’n byw yn unig. Dewch o hyd i’ch ward yma

CYFANSODDIAD Mae ASau ac Aelodau Seneddau Datganoledig yn cynrychioli pobl sy’n byw mewn ardal ddaearyddol swyddogol o’r enw Etholaeth sy’n ardal leol fwy na ward / ardal. Dewch o hyd i’ch etholaeth yma.

FFAITH HWYL # 1– Dim ond er mwyn eich cadw ar flaenau eich traed, mae ffiniau etholaeth yn newid o bryd i’w gilydd. Maent yn seiliedig ar faint o bobl sy’n byw mewn ardal benodol ac achos mai poblogaeth yn newid, i’w chadw’n deg mae’r pedwar Comisiwn Ffiniau yn eu hadolygu a’u newid yn achlysurol ac yn ceisio gwneud hyn i gyd-fynd â newidiadau i wardiau / ardaloedd.

RHANBARTH – Rhennir Cymru yn 5 rhanbarth. Dewch o hyd i’ch rhanbarth yma.

CYNGOR – corff o bobl a etholwyd i reoli materion dinas, sir, neu ardal ddinesig arall

Mae DATGANOLI yn ymwneud â throsglwyddo pŵer gan lywodraeth ganolog i weinyddiaethau lleol neu ranbarthol.

Mae datganoli wedi bod yn broses esblygol sydd wedi ymateb i ofynion y cyhoedd ac wedi trawsnewid tirwedd wleidyddol a chyfansoddiadol y Deyrnas Unedig. Mae wedi arwain at newid democrataidd trwy ddod â gwneud penderfyniadau yn agosach at bobl ledled y DU. Gall pobl yr Alban, Cymru a Gogledd Iwerddon, yn ogystal â’r rhai a gynrychiolir gan Faer Metropolitan, gael mwy a mwy o lais yn y polisïau sy’n effeithio arnynt.

GLYMBLAID  Mae llywodraeth glymblaid yn llywodraeth a ffurfiwyd ar y cyd gan fwy nag un blaid wleidyddol. Gall pleidiau benderfynu ffurfio llywodraeth glymblaid os oes Senedd wedi’i Hongian sy’n golygu nad oes yr un blaid wleidyddol wedi ennill mwyafrif gweithredol

YN GYNTAF HEIBIO’R POST Mewn etholiad cyffredinol neu etholiad lleol, mae pleidleiswyr yn rhoi croes (X) wrth ymyl eu hymgeisydd dewisol ar bapur pleidleisio. Mae papurau pleidleisio yn cael eu cyfrif. Yr ymgeisydd sydd â’r nifer fwyaf o bleidleisiau sy’n ennill ac yn cynrychioli’r etholaeth honno yn y Senedd neu’r ward yn y Cyngor lleol.

CYNRYCHIOLAETH CYNNIG Yn ystod Etholiadau Seneddol Cymru / yr Alban, cyfrifir yr holl bleidleisiau a fwriwyd ar gyfer pob plaid wleidyddol mewn Rhanbarth fel bod canran ​​y pleidleisiau a fwriwyd ar gyfer pob plaid yn penderfynu nifer yr aelodau rhanbarthol sydd gan bob plaid yn y senedd i gynrychioli pawb a bleidleisiodd yn y rhanbarth yna.

RHEOL Y GYFRAITH Syniad allweddol rheolaeth y gyfraith yw y dylai’r gyfraith fod yr un mor berthnasol i bob llywodraethwr a phawb arall. Mae hyn yn sicrhau ‘llywodraeth y gyfraith’ ’ac nid‘ llywodraeth dynion’. Yn y modd hwn, mae rheolaeth y gyfraith yn sefydlu’r berthynas rhwng y llywodraeth a’r bobl.

Nid oes unrhyw sy’n uwchlaw’r gyfraith. Mae’r gyfraith yn trin POB dinesydd yn gyfartal. Rhaid i’r gyfraith ddatrys pob anghydfod a rhaid i’r gyfraith amddiffyn hawliau dynol. Rhaid i farnwyr bod yn gwbl ddiduedd ac yn anwleidyddol

Rheolaeth y gyfraith yw’r egwyddor y dylai’r gyfraith lywodraethu yn yr ystyr ei bod yn berthnasol i bob ymddygiad ac mae’n cynnwys swyddogion preifat a chyhoeddus. Is-egwyddorion yw nad oes unrhyw un uwchlaw’r gyfraith, bod cydraddoldeb i bawb o flaen y gyfraith, bod y gyfraith bob amser yn cael ei chymhwyso a bod iawndal cyfreithiol ar gael trwy’r llysoedd.

Os yw’r Senedd yn pasio deddfwriaeth sydd ddim yn glir, yn hygyrch ac yn rhagweladwy; ddim yn amddiffyniad digonol o hawliau dynol ac nid yw’n darparu mynediad da a chyfartal i gyfiawnder i bawb, yna gall y Goruchaf Lys ei ddiwygio neu ei ddiystyru.

The Democracy Box© and The Story of our UK democracy that all citizens should know in seven simple chapters© and all associated content is copyright Yvonne Murphy/Omidaze Productions 2020